Why do American rich people have high income but pay less taxes?

No one denies that the social wealth of the United States is highly concentrated in a small number of hands, but it is surprising that the wealth of a few rich people is so high. The problem of uneven distribution of wealth in the United States did not arise from today, but in the 1980s it has become a concern of society and the public. However, the balance of social wealth distribution in the past 30 years has not been greatly tilted towards the middle class, and the personal income tax of the rich has been greatly reduced during the Bush administration, which has led to the rapid growth of wealthy American family wealth.
From 2001 to 2007, various families in the United States have made some changes in their wealth possession, and the balance is more inclined to the rich families. The proportion of wealth owned by 1% of the wealthiest households is rising, with a ratio of 33.4% in 2001, 34.3% in 2004, and 34.6% in 2007. The wealthy 19% of households now have a wealth ratio of more than 50%, from 51.0% in 2001 to 50.3% in 2004 and 50.4% in 2007. From 2 (X) 1 to 2007, 80% of households in the United States had a one percentage point decrease in wealth over the previous 10 years. In 2001, the ratio was 15.6%, in 2004 it was 15.3%, and in 2007 it was 15.0%.
The higher the income, the more the individual income tax should be paid. This is probably the reason that even children can understand. However, the taxpayer statistics released by the US Internal Revenue Service show that in 2007, the wealthiest 400 families in the United States had an average annual income of more than 300 million US dollars, and the lowest income was 143 million US dollars, but their average tax payment only accounted for 16.6 of income. %, set a minimum tax record since 1992.
In 2007, for the wealthy Americans, it was a year before the economic crisis. The average annual income of 400 wealthy families was $3.447 billion, an increase of 31% from the average income of 2.6330 billion in 2000. It has more than doubled the average annual income of $131.09 million in 2001. The total income of these rich people totaled more than 138 billion US dollars, an increase of more than 30 billion from 2006’s 105.3 billion US dollars.
During the Clinton administration, the United States first published the income report of the richest 400 families. In the Bush era, the income reports of the 400 richest families were no longer public. After Obama took office in 2009, he reopened the income of the 400 richest families in the United States, which gave the public a chance to re-examine how much these super-rich people earned each year and how much personal income tax they paid.
The reason why American super-rich people are super-receiving but low-level taxation is mainly related to their income channels. The income of the 400 richest families is only 6.5% of their income. Their main income comes from capital appreciation, and the government imposes a tax rate of only 15% on capital. In 2007, the wealthiest households in the United States accounted for 66.3% of their income from capital gains, and capital appreciation and dividends accounted for three-quarters of their income.



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Singapore landlord’s management desire

The Singapore landlord has a subtle and intriguing interaction with foreign guests. Listening to the stories of some friends and the landlord, it is an eye-opener.
If the owner does not live, it is contrary to the original intention of the Singapore government to take care of the residents. Therefore, even if the room is rented, the landlord must live with the tenant and report to the government. .
Hong Kong scholars came to Singapore to settle in the first place. After only three weeks, they left their deposits and moved early. Because the landlord suddenly asked him, “Where is the room in your room, where did you buy it?” & rdquo; He did not understand why the landlord rushed into his room to turn east and west. He slept until 5 o’clock in the morning and was often awakened because the air-conditioner was in the room of the elderly female landlord. When she finished the toilet, she shut down all the air. Although the current residence is not air-conditioned, only a large ceiling fan, but finally met the generous landlord, let him cherish it. A Malaysian friend said that his landlord is an immigrant from China. He asked the landlord to repair the unlocked toilet door panel. The answer was “all the people are out of the house, and they will not be fine”. More interestingly, the landlord lives in the next room, but the tenant often receives an official notice from the landlord by email. Taiwanese scholars and friends received an email from the landlord in the next room to remind him to wash the feet and deodorize the door first. When the nails were cut, the debris was not flying, and the shavings were clean.
A friend in the banking industry said that he had worried that the deposit would be deducted and that some electrical appliances would not be used. The wonderful thing is that when the renter retires, the landlord checks it one by one, and the used appliances have never been used. He argued: “I have never used it before.” ” The landlord said back to the following: “Because you don’t need it, it will be bad.” & rdquo; Well, deducted from the deposit.
Scholars and friends concluded that the Singaporean people are managed by many tangible and intangible rules. When the landlord is upgraded to a manager, the tenants are the best experimental products.
The tenant has an opinion, the landlord moved out of the box and said: “This is my house. ” There are more and more people working in the short-term, giving the landlord a strong reason. The tenant wanted to move but worried about the recurrence of the incident, so he had to endure it or continue to raise the rent.



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China’s steel industry faces an increasingly difficult international trading environment

The reporter was informed yesterday that a number of steel mills, including the US Steel Corporation, have applied to the US International Trade Commission (ITC) for anti-dumping investigations on certain steel pipes imported from various countries and regions in Asia. Involved in India, South Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and so on. Although this time does not involve the Chinese mainland, the domestic steel industry is undoubtedly the biggest victim of international trade protection.

It is reported that US steel mills require anti-dumping duties on steel pipes from the above countries and request countervailing duties on steel pipes imported from India and Turkey. Xu Xiangchun, director of the information network of my steel network, told the Beijing Business Daily that in recent years, the trade protectionism in Europe and the United States has obviously warmed up, and it has strictly controlled the import of steel from many countries and regions around the world, especially pointing to China. In March of this year, US steel mills also called on ITC to take action on steel from China. In fact, the United States has imposed anti-dumping duties and countervailing duties on most steel products in China.

What is more noteworthy is that in March last year, the US federal court ruled that the non-market economy countries had violated the law, and the US Congress initiated the legislative process and quickly completed the counter- The amendment of the Subsidy Act retains the power to levy taxes on goods that are subsidized by the government such as China. The US revision of the trade law has given domestic steel mills more protection, while China, the world’s largest steel producer, feels the cold.

When the industry’s loss is close to 80%, the frequent encounters of international anti-dumping and countervailing “double-reverse” investigations have undoubtedly worsened the survival of Chinese steel companies. According to the latest data, there were 9 trade remedy cases against steel products in mainland China last year, showing explosive growth. In 2012, China’s cumulative export of steel products was 55,732,100 tons, an increase of 14.02% compared with 2011. But the main varieties are involved in the “double anti” vortex.

“If the coated steel plate is subject to countervailing duties, it will cause the domestic steel industry to face a huge impact.” Lange Steel Network analyst Wang Guoqing pointed out that “not only domestic steel enterprises will face more High taxes have also paved the way for European companies to apply for higher import tariffs on steel industries such as Chinese household appliances and automobiles. & rdquo; For this reason, many people in the industry have called for the steel industry to follow the footsteps of the photovoltaic industry. (Reporter Xiao Wei)



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Garden-like Worcester Library

Grant, the famous landscape architect behind the Cooling House and the Skyscraper project in Singapore, saw their landscape design as a hive, Worcester Library to live. The British program, designed by the architect Feilden Craig Bradley, was the first to offer a joint university and public library in Europe and opened in July 2012.

The hive is a BREEAM excellent lighting and natural ventilation library, maximizing These elements are drawn into the building, and the seven roof cone designs echo the ridgeline near Morse Mountain and the historic Royal Worcester kiln pottery. The exterior form is used with solid laminated timber, and the copper alloy is worn in a palette with concrete and ash.



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Illuminated glass bricks surround the square subway station

This new metro station in Leipzig, Germany, has a Swiss architect Mark that includes a 140-meter-long tunnel of illuminated glass bricks. The Wilhelmplatz station is one of the four stations along the new Leipzig city tunnel railway line that has been under construction for more than a decade and is set to open next month, creating a new link between some of the city’s main links.

Swiss architect Max, whose previous projects include a luminous library and a castle visitor center, won the competition design Standing in 1997 with his advice, a glowing tunnel, gently bending the lobby and the details of the raw materials.
Back to the bright glass blocks are arranged throughout the entire length of the entire wall and ceiling within a specific set of frames to create large illuminated squares. “In the slightly curved, well-lit hall, the seemingly endless repetition of the same element in the process of adding a dimensional sense of the original structure” said the studio.


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Echo Investment’s first tallest building debut

Located at Q22, the station will be 155 meters tall and provide nearly 50,000 square meters of office space. Leading Polish financier Echo Investment commissioned, architectural design by the world famous architect Kurylowicz and associations in association with BRO Happold in Poland has existed for nearly two decades.

According to Echo Investment Q represents the quality of the design and construction, and the structure of the quartz will reflect the crystal in its design and format clear and perfect. In order to achieve the customer’s sustainable development goals, Q22 is developing all the materials created on the website, the demolished Mercure hotel that was recycled during the demolition process; the concrete aggregates of 1,500 tons and 25,000 tons of steel have been reprocessed. Happold B?RO is a supply structure and building services project recognized by Q22 and BREEAM.


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Emerging market public debt regained favor

The Wall Street Journal reported that the public debt issued by Russia and South Africa on the 9th, the largest issue size of sovereign debts in emerging markets this year, shows that the Federal Reserve is preparing to reduce the quantitative easing policy and cause bond market turmoil. After a few months, investors are still interested in developing economies. However, the financing costs of both countries have risen sharply from a few months ago, highlighting the increasingly challenging environment for lenders.
Russia raised nearly $7 billion, and the yield on 10-year bonds was 5.112%, compared to 4.5% when similar bonds were issued last year. South Africa’s 12-year US$2 billion bond yield climbed to 6.06%, which is also higher than 4.665% when similar bonds were issued in January 2012.
According to researcher Dealogic, the scale of bond issuance on the 9th is the biggest this year. Since mid-May, there have been few bleak market conditions for new bond issuance. The Fed may decide next week whether to gradually reduce the scale of bond purchases. This expectation has led to a rise in US Treasury yields in the past four months, and stocks, exchanges and bond markets in emerging markets have fallen across the board. The issuance of new bonds on the 9th shows that both lenders and investors believe that the bond market has experienced a longer-term change, and the situation in which the national interest rate has been at a record low for five years is coming to an end. Lenders want to seize the last chance to get cheap money before the Fed reduces the size; investors are looking at this rare interest rate this year, and it is a pity to miss it.
Helkett, an emerging market fund manager at Stone Harbor Investment Partners, said: “It feels like the door to emerging market asset classes is back. In the past, investors worried about the direction of the Fed policy, and they have divested from emerging markets. Many potential lenders have therefore delayed the issuance of new debts, hoping that the financing costs will be reversed after the market has ended.
Before the Fed officials publicly discussed the quantitative easing exit in May, the size of the bond issuance in 2013 in emerging market countries was expected to be rewritten.



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Design inspired by birds flying freely

John McAslan + Partner & lsquo; Wellington House is a 10-storey building with 59 apartments located on a triangular site off Buckingham Palace, a dynamic reinterpretation of traditional mansion blocks. The project land coupon, the result of collaboration between Georgia Russell and the artist.

Indian sandstone facade inscription treatment, inspired by birds and windy flying patterns, creates a compelling The new building sits in a comfortable protected area, including buildings of all sizes and types.



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New building materials to create different houses

This is a brand new design that uses passive solar energy utilization principles to create a cheap, ecological, and efficient home. On the hillside south of Ithaca in northern New York, three main living spaces, a functional space and a house of natural ventilation stacks were built. In the south, concrete heat sinks are used as walls for energy and light storage. Created a solarium that, in the summer, opens the walls and blends in with the natural landscape. The outer surface of the house is provided with a solar-responsive cement slab wall, which transitions from dark to bright depending on the brightness. From the outset, the budget spent on devices, structures, and systems was completed at minimal cost. Therefore, the palette of materials is simple, but there are complex forms and spaces.

Sustainable Design
The house is super-insulated and uses heat and daylight simulation during iteration The software balances lighting and thermal performance. Because the climate in northern New York is relatively harsh, windows cannot be opened on a large scale, but when the sun appears above the horizon, the house is full of light at all times.

Housing plan


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Development of Seguin, 法兰le-de-France

Over the years, the Seine River is an industrious Renault car factory that produces a thriving city. In 2005, the manufacturing business and the factory closed question mark hang on the future of Seguin Island. It soon decided that the island became a destination for culture and art, and in 2001 won the competition Ando Tadao designed the Pino Foundation Museum of Contemporary Art. This has never been seen until it is completed.

In 2009, French architect Jean · Jean Nouvel was selected to develop a master plan to rebuild Sagan and culture , retail and social factors. Nouvel’s green leaves, light-rich developments were shelved, and new competition-centric production and performance music was introduced years later. It has now been announced that Yan Mao and local practice Jean · de Gastines ARCHITECTES, its 36,500 square meter concept shaped boat-shaped island has won this competition.


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